Revisiting Putnam’s two-level game theory in the digital age: Domestic digital diplomacy and the Iran nuclear deal

Note: This post was originally published on the blog of the Cambridge Review of International Affairs and was co-authored with Corneliu Bjola.   In 1988, Robert Putnam conceptualised diplomatic negotiations as a two-level game in which national and international politics often collide. In this framework, constituents and interest groups (labour unions, activist groups, etc.) pursue their interests at…

The Digitalization of Diplomacy

Digital diplomacy is no longer a novel phenomenon. In one form or another, digital diplomacy has existed for more than a decade. And yet scholars and practitioners continue to explore the practice and definition of digital diplomacy. During this process, different scholars and MFAs have offered different terms to understand the utilization of digital tools…

Diplomacy in the Age of Simulacra

The age of Simulacra Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure is known for his theory of signifier and signified. A “signifier” is a verbal reference to a given object, while “signified” is the actual object being referred too. For instance, the word “chair” is the signifier for the object on which individuals sit in an office…

Ambassadors as Digital Gatekeepers

Technology has always influenced the practice of diplomacy and, subsequently, the role of Ambassadors. Until the 19th century Ambassadors were both extraordinary and plenipotentiary meaning that they had the authority to negotiate on behalf of their monarch and even sign treaties in his name. This was a result of the communication mediums that were available…