The Digital Diplomacy Bibliography

Last week I was asked to review an academic journal article dealing with the use of social media by diplomatic actors. The article started with a familiar phrase- few studies to date have investigated the manner in which digital technologies have impacted the conduct of diplomacy and those practicing it. The article also stated that few studies to date have investigated other countries except America.

While I agree that digital diplomacy is still fertile ground, and that there is much more academic work to be done in this field, I would argue that the digital diplomacy research corpus is already quite rich. Moreover, I would also state that scholars have over the past two decades (!) examined a host of nations ranging from Canada to Chile, Ethiopia India, Iran, Israel, Kenya, Korea, Palestine, Peru, Russia and more.

The digital diplomacy research corpus can thus serve as a launching pad for future research. Yet those seeking to undertake this research must first immerse themselves in the knowledge gained thus far.

To illustrate my argument, and help those seeking to advance the study of digital diplomacy, I have collated a Digital Diplomacy Bibliography. This bibliography contains Books, chapters, journal articles and working papers which have been of use to me or have inspired me in my research. I hope that they will also be of service to other scholars, diplomats and connected individuals hoping to explore the intersection between digitalization and diplomacy.

Ilan Manor

Books (Authors/Editors in italics):

The Revolution That Wasn’t: How Digital Activism Favors Conservatives (2021)- Jen Schradie

Digital Diplomacy and International Organization (2021)- Edited by Corneliu Bjola and Ruben Zaiotti

Public Diplomacy and the Politics of Uncertainty (2021)- Edited by Pawel Surowiec and Ilan Manor

Emerging Technology Securities and EU Governance (2020)– Edited by Edited By Antonio Calcara, Raluca Csernatoni, Chantal Lavallée

The Digitalization of Public Diplomacy (2019) – Ilan Manor

This Is Not Propaganda: Adventures in the War Against Reality (2019)- Peter Pomerantsev

Negotiating Internet Governance (2019)- Roxana Radu

Cyberdiplomacy: Managing Security and Governance Online (2019) – Shaun Riordan

Countering Online Propaganda and Extremism: The Dark Side of Digital Diplomacy (2018) – Corneliu Bjola and James Pamment

The Chessboard and the Web (2017) – Anne Marie Slaughter

Digital DNA: Disruption and the challenges for global governance (2017) – Peter Cowhey and Jonathan Aronson

The Future of #Diplomacy (2016) – Philip Seib

Disruptive Power: The Crisis of the State in the Digital Age (2015) – Taylor Owen

Digital Diplomacy: Conversation on Innovation in Foreign Policy (2015) – Andreas Sandre

Digital Diplomacy: Theory and Practice (2015) – Corneliu Bjola and Marcus Holmes

Nation as Network: Diaspora, Cyberspace & Citizenship (2014) – Victoria Bernal

Strategic Narratives: Communication, Power and the New World Order (2013) – Alister Miskimmon, Ben O’Loughlin and Laura Roselle

New Public Diplomacy in the 21st Century (2013) – James Pamment

Real-Time Diplomacy (2012) – Philip Seib

Diplomacy in the Digital Age: Essays in Honour of Ambassador Allan Gotlieb (2011) – Jancie Gross Stein

Cyber Diplomacy: Managing Foreign Policy in the 21st Century (2002) – Evan Potter

Digital Diplomacy: U.S. Foreign Policy in the Information Age (2001) – Wilson Dizard

Book Chapters (Book titles in italics):

Public Diplomacy in the Age of ‘Post-reality’ (2021)- Ilan Manor and Corneliu Bjola, Public Diplomacy and the Politics of Uncertainty

Reconceptualising and Measuring Online Prestige in IOs: Towards a Theory of Prestige Mobility (2021)- Ilan Manor, Digital Diplomacy and International Organization

Europe United: An Analysis of the EU’s Public Diplomacy on Twitter (2020)- Ilan Manor, Emerging Technology Securities and EU Governance

Digital Diplomacy (2019) – Craig Hayden, the Encyclopedia of Diplomacy

Public Diplomacy and Its Offshoots (2017) – Tom Fletcher, Satow’s Diplomatic Practice

From Club to Network Diplomacy (2016) -Jorge Heine, The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy to Public Diplomacy

‘Secrecy is for Losers’: Why Diplomats Should Embrace Oneness to protect National Security (2015) – Alexis Wichowski, Digital Diplomacy: Theory and Practice

Social Media and Public Diplomacy: A Comparative Analysis of the Digital Diplomatic Strategies of the EU, US, and Japan in China (2015) – Corneliu Bjola and Lu Jian, Digital Diplomacy: Theory and Practice

America’s Selfie: How the US Portrays Itself on its Social Media Accounts (2015) – Ilan Manor and Elad Segev, Digital Diplomacy: Theory and Practice

Business As Usual? An Evaluation of British and Canadian Digital Diplomacy as Policy Change (2015) – Amanda Clarke, Digital Diplomacy: Theory and Practice

Delivering Digital Public Diplomacy (2013) – Charles Causey and Philip N. Howard, Relational, Networked and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy

The “Virtual Last Three Feet” (2013) – Hyunjin Seo, Relational, Networked and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy

Diaspora Diplomacy and Public Diplomacy (2013) – Kishan S . Rana, Relational, Networked and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy

Taking Diplomacy Public (2013) – Daryl Copeland, Relational, Networked and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy

Corporate Diplomacy in the Information Age: Catching Up to the Dispersal of Power (2011) – George Haynal, Diplomacy in the Digital Age: Essays in Honour of Ambassador Allan Gotlieb

The Relational Paradigm and Sustained Dialogue (2013) – Harold Saunders, Relational, Networked and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy

Network Purpose, Network Design: Dimensions of Network and Collaborative Public Diplomacy (2013) – Rhonda S. Zaharna, Relational, Networked and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy

Journal Articles (Journal name in italics):

The Synthetic Situation in Diplomacy: Scopic Media and the Digital Mediation of Estrangement- Kristin Anabel Eggeling and Rebecca Adler-Nissen (2021), Global Studies Quarterly

Helpful partner or infringing interloper? Examining discursive contestation in the engagements on the EU delegation in the Philippines’ Facebook page-Enverga III, Manuel (2021), Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

An Examination of Factors Influencing National Reputation of India Among South Asians on Social Media- Garud-Patkar Nisha (2021), International Journal of Communication

The liquidification of international politics and Trump’s (un) diplomacy on Twitter- Jérémie Cornut, Susan Gail Harris Rimmer, and Ivy Choi (2021), International Politics

From ‘traitors’ to ‘saviours’: A longitudinal analysis of Ethiopian, Kenyan and Rwandan embassies’ practice of digital diaspora diplomacy- Ilan Manor and Geraldine Asiwome Adiku (2021), South African Journal of International Affairs

‘Russia isn’ta country of Putins!’: How RT bridged the credibility gap in Russian public diplomacy during the 2018 FIFA World Cup- Rhys Crlley, Marie Gillespie, Vitaly Kazakov, and Alistair Willis. (2021), The British Journal of Politics and International Relations

UN celebrity diplomacy in China: activism, symbolism and national ambition online- Saskia Postema and Jan Melissen (2021), International Affairs

Digital diplomacy: Internet-based public diplomacy activities or novel forms of public engagement?- Mazumdar, B. Theo. (2021), Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

‘No, we don’t know where Tupac is’: critical intelligence studies and the CIA on social media- Crilley, Rhys, and Louise Pears (2021), Intelligence and National Security

The Irrelevance of Soft Power- Ilan Manor and Guy J. Golan (2021), E-International Relations

Shakespeare Lives on Twitter: cultural diplomacy in the digital age- Aslan Ozgul, Billur, Eva Nieto McAvoy, Marie Gillespie, and Ben O’Loughlin (2021), International Journal of Cultural Policy

Reputation Crisis Management and the State: Theorizing Containment as Diplomatic Mode- Kristin Hagevic, Cecile Basberg Neumann (2021), European Journal of International Relations

Public Engagement Model to Analyze Digital Diplomacy on Twitter: A Social Media Analytics Framework- Khan, M. Laeeq, Muhammad Ittefaq, Yadira Ixchel Martínez Pantoja, Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, and Aqdas Malik (2021). International Journal of Communication

Russia’s Digital Diplomacy: The good, the bad and the satirical (2021)-Ilan Manor, RUSSLAND-ANALYSEN

Exploring China’s Digitalization of Public Diplomacy on Weibo and Twitter: A Case Study of the US–China Trade War- Huang, Zhao Alexandre, and Rui Wang (2021), International Journal of Communication

Cyber Offense in NATO: Challenges and oppertunities- Jeppe T Jacobsen, (2021), International Affairs

Fear and empathy in international relations: Diplomacy, cyber engagement and Australian foreign policy (2021)- Luigi Di Martino, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

Sprawling in Cyberspace: Barack Obama’s Legacy in Public Diplomacy and Strategic Communication-Tsvetkova, Natalia, Dmitrii Rushchin, Boris Shiryaev, Grigory Yarygin, and Ivan Tsvetkov (2020), Journal of Political Marketing

The Russians are Laughing! The Russians are Laughing! How Russian Diplomats Employ Humour in Online Public Diplomacy- Ilan Manor (2020), Global Society

UN Diplomacy in 280 Characters- Ilan Manor (2020), Vereinte Nationen

Forum: Militarization 2.0: Communication and the Normalization of Political Violence in the Digital Age-Susan T Jackson, Rhys Crilley, Ilan Manor, Catherine Baker, Modupe Oshikoya, Jutta Joachim, Nick Robinson, Andrea Schneiker, Nicole Sunday Grove, Cynthia Enloe (2020), International Studies Review

NATO’s Digital Public Diplomacy During the Covid-19 Pandemic- Corneliu Bjola and Ilan Manor (2020), Turkish Policy Quarterly

The populist style and public diplomacy: kayfabe as performative agonism in Trump’s Twitter posts- Paweł Surowiec abd Christopher Milles (2020), Public Relations Inquiry

Hybridity and Soft Power Statecraft: The ‘GREAT’ Campaign- Paweł Surowiec and Phillip Long (2020), Diplomacy and Statecraft

Tweeting the Russian revolution: RT’s #1917LIVE and social media re-enactments as public diplomacy-Rhys Crilley, Marie Gillespie, Alistair Willis (2019), European Journal of Cultural Studies

Rebel Diplomacy and Digital Communication: Public Diplomacy in the Sahel- Michèle Bos & Jan Melissen (2019), International Affairs

The Mediatization of MFAs: Diplomacy in the New Media Ecology (2019)- Ilan Manor & Rhys Crilley, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy

Public Diplomacy in the Digital Age (2019)- Corneliu Bjola, Jennifer Cassidy and Ilan Manor, the Hague Journal of Diplomacy 

Digital Diplomacy: Emotion and Identity in the Public Realm (2019)- Constance Duncombe, the Hague Journal of Diplomacy

From Embassy Ties to Twitter Links: Comparing Offline and Online Diplomatic Networks (2019) – Efe Sevin and Ilan Manor, Policy & Internet

Hashtag Diplomacy: Twitter as a Tool for Engaging in Public Diplomacy and Promoting US Foreign Policy (2019) – Stephen D Collins, Jeff R. DeWitt, and Rebecca K. LeFebvre, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

More Than Data: Using the Netvizz Facebook Application for Mixed-Methods Analysis of Digital Diplomacy (2019) – Damian Spry, Research Methods

Practicing Citizen Diplomacy 2.0: “The Hot Dudes and Hummus- Israel’s Yummiest” Campaign for Israel’s Branding (2019) – Tal Samuel-Azran, Betti Ilovici, Israel Zari and Orly Geduild, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

Towards Prestige Mobility? Diplomatic Prestige and Digital Diplomacy (2019) – Ilan Manor and James Pamment, the Cambridge Review of International Affairs

Branding Korea as “My Friend’s Country”: The Case of VANK’s Cyber Public Diplomats (2018) – Kadir Ayhan, Korea Observer

Facebook Diplomacy: A Data Driven, User-Focused Approach to Facebook use by Diplomatic Missions (2018) – Damian Spry, Media International Australia

Factors Influencing e-diplomacy implementation: Exploring Causal Relationships Using Interpretive Structural Modelling (2018) – Hamad Al Muftah et a., Government Information Quarterly

The Long Road to Digitalized Diplomacy: A Short History of the Internet in U.S. Public Diplomacy (2018) – Nicholas J, Cull, Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior

The Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: From Digitization to Modernization (2018) – Alejandro Neyra and Rafa Rubio, Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior

Digital Diplomacy as Crisis Communication: Turkish Digital Outreach after July 15 (2018) – Efe Sevin, Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior

Strengthening the United Nations Secretariat’s Use of Social Media: The View of One Practitioner (2018) – Nancy Groves, Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior

Palestine in Hebrew: Overcoming the Limitations of Traditional Diplomacy (2018) – Ilan Manor and Marcus Holmes, Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior

Diplomacy & Digitization: A Profession Adapting to New Networks of Power (2018) – James Pamment, Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior

The Digitalization of Public Diplomacy: Towards a New Conceptual Framework (2018) – Azócar Daniel Aguirre, Ilan Manor, Cardoso Alejandro Ramos, Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior

Strategic Narrative: 21st Century Diplomatic Statecraft (2018) – Alister Miskimmon, Ben O’Loughlin and Laura Roselle, Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior

Digital Diplomacy 2.0: Trends and Counter Trends (2018) – Corneliu Bjola, Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior

Digital Diplomacy: Success at your Fingertips (2018) – Neil Collins and Kristina Kekenova, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

The Digital Industries: Transparency as Mass Deception (2018) – Ilan Manor and Louis Soone, Global Policy

Visualizing the Paris Climate talks on Twitter: Media and Climate Stakeholder Visual Social Media During COP21 (2018) – Jill E Hopke and Luis E Hestres, Social Media + Society

Twitter and the Challenges of Digital Diplomacy (2018) – Constance Duncombe, SAIS Review of International Affairs

A Turning IR Landscape in a Shifting Media Ecology: The State of IR Literature on New Media (2018) – Susan Jackson, International Studies Review

Visually framing the Gaza War of 2014: The Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Twitter (2018) – Ilan Manor and Rhys Crilley, Media, War and Conflict

Revisiting Putnam’s two-level game theory in the digital age: Domestic digital diplomacy and the Iran nuclear deal (2018) – Corneliu Bjola and Ilan Manor, The Cambridge Review of International Affairs

Organizational Culture and Public Diplomacy in the Digital Sphere: The case of South Korea (2018) – Jeffery Robertson, Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies

Telling NATO’s Story of Afghanistan: Gender and the Alliance’s Digital Diplomacy (2017) – Katherine AM Wright, Media, War & Conflict

Critical Digital Diplomacy as a Global Challenge: The South Korean Experience (2017) – Jan Melissen, Emilie V. de Keulenaar, Global Policy

America’s Selfie–Three Years Later (2017) – Ilan Manor, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

Facebook Users’ Engagement with Israel’s Public Diplomacy Messages During the 2012 and 2014 Military Operations in Gaza (2017) – Moran Yrachi, Tal Samuel-Azran, and Lior Bar-David, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

Sharing Public Diplomacy Through Social Media Networks in the 21 Century (2017) – Valentin Costa, Romanian Journal of History and International Studies

Twitter and Transformative Diplomacy: Social Media and Iran–US Relations (2017) – Constance Duncombe, International Affairs

Digital Diplomacy- The State of the Art (2016) – Corneliu Bjola, Global Affairs

Digital Diplomacy and the Securing of Nationals in a Citizen-Centric World (2016) – Jan Melissen and Matthew Caesar-Gordon, Global Affairs

Crafting strategic MFA communication policies during times of political crisis: A note to MFA policy makers (2016) – Jennifer Cassidy and Ilan Manor, Global Affairs

Digital Containment: Revisiting Containment Strategy in the Digital Age (2016) – Corneliu Bjola and James Pamment, Global Affairs

Getting Digital Diplomacy Right: What Quantum Theory Can Teach Us about Measuring Impact (2016) – Corneliu Bjola, Global Affairs

Are We There Yet? Have MFAs Realized the Potential of Digital Diplomacy? Results from a Cross-National Comparison (2016) – Ilan Manor, Diplomacy and Foreign Policy

Digital diplomacy in GCC Countries: Strategic Communication of Western Embassies on Twitter (2015) – Strauß, Nadine, Sanne Kruikemeier, Heleen van der Meulen, and Guda van Noort,  Government Information Quarterly

Digital public diplomacy on Twitter? The case of@ Sweden (2015) – Helen Hoffmann, International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy

Digital Diplomacy as Transmedia Engagement: Aligning Theories of Participatory Culture with International Advocacy Campaigns (2015) – James Pamment, New Media & Society

Digital Diplomacy 2.0: A Cross National Comparison of Public Engagement in Facebook and Twitter (2015)- Ronit Kampf, Ilan Manor and Elad Segev, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy

Netpolitik: What the Emergence of Networks Means for Diplomacy and Statecraft (2015) – Charlie Firestone and Leshuo Dong, The Aspen Journal of Ideas

Digital Public Diplomacy and a Strategic Narrative for India (2014) – Kalathmika Natarajan, Strategic Analysis  

Social Media’s Dialogic Communication of Foreign Embassies in Korea and Public Diplomacy: Based on Dialogic Communication Theory (2014) – Heewoon Cha, Sunha Yeo, and Bittnari Kim, Advanced Science and Technology Letters

India’s Digital Diaspora Diplomacy: Operationalizing Collaborative Public Diplomacy Strategies for Social Media (2014) – Bhattiprolu Murti and Rhonda S. Zaharna, Exchange: the Journal for Public Diplomacy  

Digital Engagement: Americas Use (and misuse) of Marshall McLuhan (2013) – Edward Comor, Political Science

America’s Engagement Delusion: Critiquing a Public Diplomacy Consensus (2012) – Edward Comoro and Harold Bean, International Communication Gazette

Social Media at State: Power, Practice and Conceptual Limits for US Public Diplomacy (2012) – Craig Hayden, Global Media Journal

Public Diplomacy 2.0: A Case Study of the US Digital Outreach Team (2012)- Lina Khatib, William Dutton and Michael Thelwall, The Middle East Journal

Is It The Medium or the Message? Social Media, American Public Relations and Iran (2012) – Emily Metzgar, Global Media Journal

Impact of New Technologies on International Communication: the Case of Public Diplomacy (2012) – Beata Ociepka, Information Science

Issue Theme: The Use of Social Media in US Public Diplomacy (2012) – Rhonda S. Zaharna and William A Rugh, Global Media Journal

Post-9/11 US public diplomacy in eastern Europe: Dialogue via new technologies or face-to-face communication? (2012) – Antoaneta M Vanc, Global Media Journal

Israel’s Peer-to-peer Diplomacy (2012) – Shay Attias, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy

The Impact of New Media on Diplomatic Practice: An Evolutionary Model of Change (2012) – Cristina Archetti, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy

Digital Diplomacy: The Internet, the Battle for Ideas and US Foreign Policy (2010) – Ellen Hallams, CEU Political Science Journal

Web-based Public Diplomacy: The Role of Social Media in the Iran and Xingjiang Riots (2010)- Li Xiguang and Wang Jing, Journal of International Communication

Mapping the Great Beyond: Identifying Meaningful Networks in Public Diplomacy (2010) – Ali Fisher, CPD Perspectives on Public Diplomacy

America’s Edge (2009) – Anne-Marie Slaughter, Foreign Policy

Exploring US e-diplomacy and Non State Actors’ Increasing Communicative Influence (2008) – Kimberly Soltzfus, Proceedings of the 2008 international conference on Digital government research. Digital Government Society of North America

Network diplomacy (2001) – Jamie F. Metzl, Georgetown Journal of International Affairs

Virtual Diplomacy: Rethinking Foreign Policy Practice in the Information Age (2001) – Sheryl J Brown and Margarita S. Studemeister, Information & Security

Essays/Blogs/ Working Papers:

China’s Public Diplomacy Operations: Understanding Engagement and Inauthentic Amplification of PRC Diplomats on Facebook and Twitter (2021)- Marcel Schliebs, Hannah Bailey, Jonathan Bright and Philip N. Howard

Sputnik Tweets Its Way to Legitimacy (2021)-Ilan Manor, Global Policy

Data is Power: Wahsington Needs to Craft New Rulles for the Digital Age (2021)- Matthew Slaughter and David McCormick, Foreign Affairs

Digital Diplomacy: Global Trends, Opportunities and Challenges (2021)- Lucas Hibbeln, Invictus Corporation

Hybrid Diplomacy: How COVID-19 changes the way we negotiate (2021)- Jovan Kurbalija and Katharina Höne, sef: Development and Peace Foundation 

Diplomats worldwide go digital to honor Int’l Holocaust Remembrance Day (2021)- Ilan Manor, The Jerusalem Post

The Digital Legacy of Covid-19 (2021)- Ilan Manor, E-International Relations

Defending Democracies From Disinformation and Cyber-enabled Foreign Interference (2021)-Danielle Cave and Jake Wallis, The Strategist 

Amid election fraud concerns: Could robots decide a US election? (2020)- Ilan Manor, The Jerusalem Post

Diplomacy in the age of Artificial Intelligence (2020)- Corneliu Bjola, EDA Working Papers

How External Shocks Alter Digital Diplomacy’s Trajectory (2020)- Ilan Manor, USC Center on Public Diplomacy Blog

How America Uses Twitter to Indict Iran (2019)- Ilan Manor, USC Center on Public Diplomacy Blog

Adapting Diplomacy to The Digital Age: Managing the Organisational Cultures of Ministries of Foreign Affairs (2018) – Corneliu Bjola, Oxford Digital Diplomacy Research Group Working Papers

Digital Diplomacy: India’s Increasing Digital Footprint (2018)- Saurabh Singh, Society for the Study of Peace and Conflict

The Digitalization of Diplomacy: Towards Clarification of a Fractured Terminology (2018) – Ilan Manor, Oxford Digital Diplomacy Research Group Working Papers

Digital Diplomatic Crisis Communication: Reconceptualising Diplomatic Signalling in an age of Real Time Governance (2018) – Jennifer Cassidy, Oxford Digital Diplomacy Research Group Working Papers

Computational Diplomacy: Foreign Policy Communication in the Age of Algorithms and Automation (2017) – Akin Unver

The Contradictory Trends of Digital Diaspora Diplomacy (2017) – Ilan Manor, www.digdipblog.com

Summary- Israel’s First Digital Diplomacy Conference (2017) – Ilan Manor, Exploring Digital Diplomacy

The Strategic Use of Digital and Public Diplomacy in Pursuit of National Objectives (2016) – Sean Riordan, Working Paper Presented at FOCIR 2016 Conference

Diplomacy in the Digital Age (2015) – Brian Hocking and Jan Melissen, Netherlands Institute of International Relations’ Clingendael’.

Futures for Diplomacy: Integrative Diplomacy in the 21st Century (2012) – Brian Hocking, Jan Melissen and Paul Sharp, Working Paper, Netherlands Institute of International Relations’ Clingendael’.

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